ed as in backed

These are past tense verbs/past participles created from base words that end in a voiceless sound, so when we add “ed” this becomes voiceless to match, so sounds like “t”.

Doubled consonant letters show that the preceding vowel is pronounced as a “short” vowel: a as in capped (not caped), e as in pepped (not peped), i as in pipped (not piped), o as in copped (not coped), u as in supped (not suped).

backed

bashed

batched

bossed

botched

buffed

cashed

checked

chocked

chucked

chuffed

cocked

cuffed

cussed

dashed

decked

dished

dissed

ditched

docked

doffed

dossed

ducked

etched

fetched

fished

fussed

gashed

gassed

gushed

hacked

hatched

hissed

hitched

hocked

huffed

hushed

itched

jacked

kicked

kissed

lacked

lashed

licked

locked

lucked

mashed

massed

matched

meshed

miffed

missed

mocked

moshed

mucked

mushed

nicked

notched

packed

patched

pecked

picked

pitched

pocked

puffed

racked

retched

rocked

rucked

rushed

sacked

shocked

shucked

socked

sucked

sussed

tacked

thatched

ticked

tossed

tucked

wished

bopped

capped

chapped

chipped

chopped

copped

cupped

dipped

hipped

hopped

kipped

lapped

lipped

lopped

mapped

mopped

napped

nipped

pepped

pipped

popped

rapped

ripped

sapped

shopped

sipped

sopped

supped

tapped

tipped

topped

upped

yapped

yipped

zapped

zipped

blipped

clapped

clipped

clopped

cropped

dripped

dropped

flapped

flipped

flopped

gripped

plopped

prepped

propped

quipped

scrapped

shipped

skipped

slapped

slipped

slopped

snapped

snipped

stepped

stopped

strapped

stripped

swapped

trapped

tripped

whipped

wrapped

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